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Faster Masked Copying

In the previous chapter we saw how the VGA’s latches can be used to copy four pixels at a time from one area of display memory to another in Mode X. We’ve further seen that in Mode X the Map Mask register can be used to select which planes are copied. That’s all we need to know to be able to perform fast masked copies; we can store an image in off-screen display memory, and set the Map Mask to the appropriate mask value as up to four pixels at a time are copied.

There’s a slight hitch, though. The latches can only be used when the source and destination left edge coordinates, modulo four, are the same, as explained in the previous chapter. The solution is to copy all four possible alignments of each image to display memory, each properly positioned for one of the four possible destination-left-edge-modulo-four cases. These aligned images must be accompanied by the four possible alignments of the image mask, stored in system memory. Given all four image and mask alignments, masked copying is a simple matter of selecting the alignment that’s appropriate for the destination’s left edge, then setting the Map Mask with the 4-bit mask corresponding to each four-pixel set as we copy four pixels at a time via the latches.

Listing 49.2 performs fast masked copying. This code expects to receive a pointer to a MaskedImage structure, which in turn points to four AlignedMaskedImage structures that describe the four possible image and mask alignments. The aligned images are already stored in display memory, and the aligned masks are already stored in system memory; further, the masks are predigested into Map Mask register-compatible form. Given all that ready-to-use data, Listing 49.2 selects and works with the appropriate image-mask pair for the destination’s left edge alignment.

LISTING 49.2 L49-2.ASM

; Mode X (320x240, 256 colors) display memory to display memory masked copy
; routine. Works on all VGAs. Uses approach of reading 4 pixels at a time from
; source into latches, then writing latches to destination, using Map Mask
; register to perform masking. Copies up to but not including column at
; SourceEndX and row at SourceEndY. No clipping is performed. Results are not
; guaranteed if source and destination overlap. C near-callable as:
;
;    void CopyScreenToScreenMaskedX(int SourceStartX,
;       int SourceStartY, int SourceEndX, int SourceEndY,
;       int DestStartX, int DestStartY, MaskedImage * Source,
;       unsigned int DestPageBase, int DestBitmapWidth);

SC_INDEX equ    03c4h   ;Sequence Controller Index register port
MAP_MASK equ    02h     ;index in SC of Map Mask register
GC_INDEX equ    03ceh   ;Graphics Controller Index register port
BIT_MASK equ    08h     ;index in GC of Bit Mask register
SCREEN_SEG equ  0a000h  ;segment of display memory in mode X

parms   struc
                dw 2 dup (?) ;pushed BP and return address
SourceStartX    dw ?         ;X coordinate of upper left corner of source
SourceStartY    dw ?         ;Y coordinate of upper left corner of source
SourceEndX      dw ?         ;X coordinate of lower right corner of source
                             ; (the column at SourceEndX is not copied)
SourceEndY      dw ?         ;Y coordinate of lower right corner of source
                             ; (the row at SourceEndY is not copied)
DestStartX      dw ?         ;X coordinate of upper left corner of dest
DestStartY      dw ?         ;Y coordinate of upper left corner of dest
Source          dw ?         ;pointer to MaskedImage struct for source
                             ; which source resides
DestPageBase    dw ?         ;base offset in display memory of page in
                             ; which dest resides
DestBitmapWidth dw ?        ;# of pixels across dest bitmap (must be multiple of 4)
parms   ends

SourceNextScanOffset equ -2   ;local storage for distance from end of
                              ; one source scan line to start of next
DestNextScanOffset  equ -4    ;local storage for distance from end of
                              ; one dest scan line to start of next
RectAddrWidth       equ -6    ;local storage for address width of rectangle
RectHeight          equ -8    ;local storage for height of rectangle
SourceBitmapWidth   equ -10   ;local storage for width of source bitmap
                              ; (in addresses)
STACK_FRAME_SIZE    equ 10
MaskedImage         struc
 Alignments         dw  4 dup(?) ;pointers to AlignedMaskedImages for the
                                 ; 4 possible destination image alignments
MaskedImage     ends
AlignedMaskedImage      struc
 ImageWidth     dw      ?   ;image width in addresses (also mask width in bytes)
 ImagePtr       dw      ?   ;offset of image bitmap in display memory
 MaskPtr        dw      ?   ;pointer to mask bitmap in DS
AlignedMaskedImage      ends
        .model  small
        .code
        public  _CopyScreenToScreenMaskedX
_CopyScreenToScreenMaskedX proc    near
        push    bp      ;preserve caller’s stack frame
        mov     bp,sp   ;point to local stack frame
        sub     sp,STACK_FRAME_SIZE ;allocate space for local vars
        push    si      ;preserve caller’s register variables
        push    di

        cld
        mov     dx,GC_INDEX     ;set the bit mask to select all bits
        mov     ax,00000h+BIT_MASK ; from the latches and none from
        out     dx,ax           ; the CPU, so that we can write the
                                ; latch contents directly to memory
        mov     ax,SCREEN_SEG   ;point ES to display memory
        mov     es,ax
        mov     ax,[bp+DestBitmapWidth]
        shr     ax,1            ;convert to width in addresses
        shr     ax,1
        mul     [bp+DestStartY] ;top dest rect scan line
        mov     di,[bp+DestStartX]
        mov     si,di
        shr     di,1             ;X/4 = offset of first dest rect pixel in
        shr     di,1             ; scan line
        add     di,ax            ;offset of first dest rect pixel in page
        add     di,[bp+DestPageBase] ;offset of first dest rect pixel in display
                                 ; memory. now look up the image that’s
                                 ; aligned to match left-edge alignment
                                 ; of destination
        and     si,3             ;DestStartX modulo 4
        mov     cx,si            ;set aside alignment for later
        shl     si,1             ;prepare for word look-up
        mov     bx,[bp+Source] ;point to source MaskedImage structure
        mov     bx,[bx+Alignments+si] ;point to AlignedMaskedImage
                                 ; struc for current left edge alignment
        mov     ax,[bx+ImageWidth] ;image width in addresses
        mov     [bp+SourceBitmapWidth],ax ;remember image width in addresses
        mul     [bp+SourceStartY] ;top source rect scan line
        mov     si,[bp+SourceStartX]
        shr     si,1             ;X/4 = address of first source rect pixel in
        shr     si,1             ; scan line
        add     si,ax            ;offset of first source rect pixel in image
        mov     ax,si
        add     si,[bx+MaskPtr] ;point to mask offset of first mask pixel in DS
        mov     bx,[bx+ImagePtr] ;offset of first source rect pixel
        add     bx,ax            ; in display memory

        mov     ax,[bp+SourceStartX] ;calculate # of addresses across
        add     ax,cx            ; rect, shifting if necessary to
        add     cx,[bp+SourceEndX]   ; account for alignment
        cmp     cx,ax
        jle     CopyDone         ;skip if 0 or negative width
        add     cx,3
        and     ax,not 011b
        sub     cx,ax
        shr     cx,1
        shr     cx,1             ;# of addresses across rectangle to copy
        mov     ax,[bp+SourceEndY]
        sub     ax,[bp+SourceStartY]  ;AX = height of rectangle
        jle     CopyDone        ;skip if 0 or negative height
        mov     [bp+RectHeight],ax
        mov     ax,[bp+DestBitmapWidth]
        shr     ax,1            ;convert to width in addresses
        shr     ax,1
        sub     ax,cx ;distance from end of one dest scan line to start of next
        mov     [bp+DestNextScanOffset],ax
        mov     ax,[bp+SourceBitmapWidth] ;width in addresses
        sub     ax,cx ;distance from end of source scan line to start of next
        mov     [bp+SourceNextScanOffset],ax
        mov     [bp+RectAddrWidth],cx ;remember width in addresses

        mov     dx,SC_INDEX
        mov     al,MAP_MASK
        out     dx,al           ;point SC Index register to Map Mask
        inc     dx              ;point to SC Data register
CopyRowsLoop:
        mov     cx,[bp+RectAddrWidth] ;width across
CopyScanLineLoop:
        lodsb                   ;get the mask for this four-pixel set
                                ; and advance the mask pointer
        out     dx,al           ;set the mask
        mov     al,es:[bx]      ;load the latches with four-pixel set from source
        mov     es:[di],al      ;copy the four-pixel set to the dest
        inc     bx              ;advance the source pointer
        inc     di              ;advance the destination pointer
        dec     cx              ;count off four-pixel sets
        jnz     CopyScanLineLoop

        mov     ax,[bp+SourceNextScanOffset]
        add     si,ax           ;point to the start of
        add     bx,ax           ; the next source, mask,
        add     di,[bp+DestNextScanOffset] ; and dest lines
        dec     word ptr [bp+RectHeight] ;count down scan lines
        jnz     CopyRowsLoop
CopyDone:
        mov     dx,GC_INDEX+1   ;restore the bit mask to its default,
        mov     al,0ffh         ; which selects all bits from the CPU
        out     dx,al           ; and none from the latches (the GC
                                ; Index still points to Bit Mask)
        pop     di              ;restore caller’s register variables
        pop     si
        mov     sp,bp           ;discard storage for local variables
        pop     bp              ;restore caller’s stack frame
        ret
_CopyScreenToScreenMaskedX endp
        end


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Graphics Programming Black Book © 2001 Michael Abrash