LISTING 10.5 L10-5.ASM

```; Finds and returns the greatest common divisor of two integers.
; Uses Euclid’s algorithm: divides the larger integer by the
; smaller; if the remainder is 0, the smaller integer is the GCD,
; otherwise the smaller integer becomes the larger integer, the
; remainder becomes the smaller integer, and the process is
; repeated. Avoids code recursion.
;
;
;
; C near-callable as:
; unsigned int gcd(unsigned int int1, unsigned int int2);

; Parameter structure:
parms struc
dw    ?              ;pushed BP
int1  dw    ?              ;integers for which to find
int2  dw    ?              ; the GCD
parms ends

.model         small
.code
public         _gcd
align 2
_gcd  proc  near
push  bp             ;preserve caller’s stack frame
mov   bp,sp          ;set up our stack frame
push  si             ;preserve caller’s register variables
push  di

;Swap if necessary to make sure that int1 >= int2
mov   ax,int1[bp]
mov   bx,int2[bp]
cmp   ax,bx          ;is int1 >= int2?
jnb   IntsSet        ;yes, so we’re all set
xchg  ax,bx          ;no, so swap int1 and int2
IntsSet:

; Now loop, dividing int1 by int2 and checking the remainder, until
; the remainder is 0. At each step, if the remainder isn’t 0, assign
; int2 to int1, and the remainder to int2, then repeat.
GCDLoop:
;if the remainder of int1 divided by
; int2 is 0, then int2 is the gcd
sub   dx,dx          ;prepare int1 in DX:AX for division
div   bx             ;int1/int2; remainder is in DX
and   dx,dx          ;is the remainder zero?
jz    Done           ;yes, so int2 (BX) is the gcd
;no, so move int2 to int1 and the
; remainder to int2, and repeat the
; process
mov   ax,bx          ;int1 = int2;
mov   bx,dx          ;int2 = remainder from DIV

;—start of loop unrolling; the above is repeated three times—
sub   dx,dx          ;prepare int1 in DX:AX for division
div   bx             ;int1/int2; remainder is in DX
and   dx,dx          ;is the remainder zero?
jz    Done           ;yes, so int2 (BX) is the gcd
mov   ax,bx          ;int1 = int2;
mov   bx,dx          ;int2 = remainder from DIV
;—
sub   dx,dx          ;prepare int1 in DX:AX for division
div   bx             ;int1/int2; remainder is in DX
and   dx,dx          ;is the remainder zero?
jz    Done           ;yes, so int2 (BX) is the gcd
mov   ax,bx          ;int1 = int2;
mov   bx,dx          ;int2 = remainder from DIV
;—
sub   dx,dx          ;prepare int1 in DX:AX for division
div   bx             ;int1/int2; remainder is in DX
and   dx,dx          ;is the remainder zero?
jz    Done           ;yes, so int2 (BX) is the gcd
mov   ax,bx          ;int1 = int2;
mov   bx,dx          ;int2 = remainder from DIV
;—end of loop unrolling—
jmp   GCDLoop

align2
Done:
mov   ax,bx          ;return the GCD
pop   di             ;restore caller’s register variables
pop   si
pop   bp             ;restore caller’s stack frame
ret
_gcd  endp
end
```

Assembly language optimization is pattern matching on a local scale. Frankly, it’s also the sort of boring, brute-force work that people are lousy at; compilers could out-optimize you at this level with one pass tied behind their back if they knew as much about the code you’re writing as you do, which they don’t.

 Design optimization—conceptual breakthroughs in understanding the relationships between the needs of an application, the nature of the data the application works with, and what the computer can do—is global pattern matching.

Computers are much worse at that sort of pattern matching than humans; computers have no way to integrate vast amounts of disparate information, much of it only vaguely defined or subject to change. People, oddly enough, are better at global optimization than at local optimization. For one thing, it’s more interesting. For another, it’s complex and imprecise enough to allow intuition and inspiration, two vastly underrated programming tools, to come to the fore. And, as I pointed out earlier, people tend to perform instantaneous solutions to even the most complex problems, while computers bog down in geometrically or exponentially increasing execution times. Oh, it may take days or weeks for a person to absorb enough information to be able to reach a solution, and the solution may only be near-optimal—but the solution itself (or, at least, each of the pieces of the solution) arrives in a flash.

Those flashes are your programming pattern matcher doing its job. Your job is to give your pattern matcher the opportunity to get to know each problem and run through it two or three times, from different angles, to see what unexpected solutions it can come up with.

Pull back the reins a little. Don’t measure progress by lines of code written today; measure it instead by overall progress and by quality. Relax and listen to that quiet inner voice that provides the real breakthroughs. Stop, look, listen—and think. Not only will you find that it’s a more productive and creative way to program—but you’ll also find that it’s more fun.

And think what you could do with all those extra computer years!

Graphics Programming Black Book © 2001 Michael Abrash